Killings of environmental activists have risen by 20% in the last year, according to campaign group Global Witness. A report published by the organisation said there were 116 deaths worldwide in 2014, including 29 in Brazil, 25 in Colombia and 15 in the Philippines.
Last year saw a spike in killings related to hydropower programs.
Fourteen people died defending their land and rivers against dam projects.
Global Witness named Honduras as the most dangerous country for environmental activists, because of “regressive laws” and a climate of “near total impunity”.
It has the highest number of killings per capita, with 111 deaths recorded since 2002.
Members of indigenous groups were increasingly involved in the “scramble for land and natural resources” and accounted for 40% of all deaths last year, it said.
In September four Peruvian tribal leaders were murdered on their way to a meeting to discuss ways to stop illegal logging.
Activists are often portrayed as enemies of the state, with some countries using anti-terror legislation to target them.
The campaign group urged governments and the international community to monitor, investigate and punish those behind what it called a hidden crisis.
According to the report, “How Many More?”, known perpetrators have included members of the police, private security firms, paramilitary groups and the military. About 40% of the victims were members of indigenous groups, often protesting against hydropower/dams, agriculture and mining.